[53], She died in Saint-Aulaye on August 5, 1807, at the age of 67. [31] In Rio de Janeiro – a much more dangerous place, where the Étoile's chaplain was murdered ashore soon after their arrival – Commerson was officially confined to the ship while his leg healed, but he and Baret nonetheless collected specimens of a flowering vine, which he named Bougainvillea. Bougainville recorded this incident in his journal some weeks after it happened, when he had an opportunity to visit the Étoile to interview Baret personally. Elizabeth Kiernan is a project coordinator for the William and Lynda Steere Herbarium at The New York Botanical Garden.She is currently working on a program to document the biodiversity of the Amazonian region of South America. Cahier des Amis de Sainte-Foy 114 (1):15-42. Because of the vast quantity of equipment Commerson was bringing on the voyage, the ship's captain, François Chenard de la Giraudais, gave up his own large cabin on the ship to Commerson and his "assistant". He was quickly placed with a foster mother but died in the summer of 1765. In particular, the captain's cabin gave Baret access to private toilet facilities so that she did not have to use the shared head with other members of the crew. How to Use the Map After opening the map, click the icon to … Duclos-Guyot and Nassau-Siegen also recorded that Baret had been discovered to be a woman on New Ireland, but without mentioning details. [61], The 2010 biography of Baret by Glynis Ridley, The Discovery of Jeanne Baret, brought Baret to the attention of a wider audience and helped to overturn some of the old misconceptions about her life. The first English-language biography of Baret, by John Dunmore, was not published until 2002, and then only in New Zealand. [37][38] Bougainville's account of Baret's unmasking on Tahiti is not corroborated by the other journal accounts of the expedition, although Vivès describes a similar incident in which Baret was immediately pointed out as a woman by the Tahitian Ahu-toru on board the ship. Jeanne Baret ([ʒan ba.ʁɛ]; July 27, 1740 – August 5, 1807) was a member of Louis Antoine de Bougainville's colonial expedition on the ships La Boudeuse and Étoile in 1766–1769. Jeanne Barret et Jean Dubernat, propriétés et familles en Dordogne et en Gironde." She was fined 50 livres for serving alcohol on Sundays in 1773[46] Then, on May 17, 1774, she married Jean Dubernat, a non-commissioned officer in the French Army who was most likely on the island on his way home to France. According to Bougainville's account, Baret was herself an expert botanist. Commerson's wife, who was the sister of the parish priest, died shortly after giving birth to a son in April 1762, and it seems most likely that Baret took over management of Commerson's household at that time, if not before. [23] At some point, the idea of Baret disguising herself as a man in order to accompany Commerson was conceived. Baret gave the child up to the Paris Foundlings Hospital. "Les testaments de Jeanne Barret, premiére femme à fair le tour de la terre, et de son époux périgordin Jean Dubernat." His financial resources on the island had dwindled, his patron Poivre had been recalled to Paris. Baret and Commerson joined the Bougainville expedition at the port of Rochefort in late December 1766. The Amazing Feat of Jeanne Baret. After a brief stop for supplies in the Dutch East Indies (now Indonesia), the ships made a longer stop at the island of Mauritius in the Indian Ocean. "De l'océan Indien aux rives de la Dordogne: le retour de Jeanne Barret après son tour du monde. In April 1776, she received the money that was due to her under Commerson's will after applying directly to the Attorney General. He hesitated in accepting because he was often in poor health; he required Baret's assistance as a nurse as well as in running his household and managing his collections and papers. Her mother died 15 months after Jeanne was born and her father when she was 15. They were assigned to sail on the storeship, the Étoile. [citation needed], In addition to Bougainville's published account, Baret's story figures in three other surviving memoirs of the expedition: a journal kept jointly by Commerson and Pierre Duclos-Guyot; a journal by the Prince of Nassau-Siegen, a paying passenger on the Boudeuse; and a memoir by François Vivès, a surgeon on the Étoile. Commerson's leg was still troubling him, and Baret seems to have done much of the actual labor, carrying supplies and specimens. Jeanne Baret was born on July 27, 1740, in the village of La Comelle in the Burgundy region of France. Modern scholars now believe that Ahu-toru actually thought that Baret was a transvestite, or mahu. [28][29], Commerson suffered badly from both seasickness and a recurring ulcer on his leg in the early part of the voyage, and Baret probably spent most of her time attending to him. [6] Danielle Clode, however, notes that Jeanne did not sign the parish register for her father's death[11] (or the birth of her godson in 1756). Commerson continued to have serious health problems, and he died in Mauritius in February 1773. [27] Vivès has the most to say about Baret, but his memoir is problematical because he and Commerson were on bad terms throughout the voyage, and his account – largely written or revised after the fact – is full of innuendo and spiteful comments directed at both Commerson and Baret. On July 27, 2020, Google celebrated her 280th birthday with a Google Doodle.[66]. She enlisted as valet and assistant to the expedition's naturalist, Philibert Commerçon (anglicized as Commerson), shortly before Bougainville's ships sailed from France. Born in 1740 in France’s Loire Valley, Jeanne Baret overcame her poverty-stricken childhood to circumnavigate the globe before any other woman in recorded history and play a … [13][14], It is also evident that Baret and Commerson shared a more personal relationship, as Baret became pregnant in 1764. Vivès also describes a different incident on New Ireland in mid-July in which Baret was caught off-guard, stripped, and "examined" by a group of other servants on the expedition. [citation needed], After crossing the Pacific, the expedition was desperately short of food. [45], After Commerson's death, Baret ran a tavern in Port Louis. Commerson was delighted to find that his old friend and fellow botanist Pierre Poivre was serving as governor on the island, and Commerson and Baret remained behind as Poivre's guests. Baret's certificate, from August 1764, survives; it was filed in a town 30 kilometres (19 mi) away and witnessed by two men of substance who likewise had travelled a considerable distance from their homes. Jeanne Baret was born on this day in 1740 in the historic town of Autun in central France. [12], At some point between 1760 and 1764, Baret became employed as housekeeper to Commerson, who had settled in Toulon-sur-Arroux, some 20 kilometres (12 mi) to the south of La Comelle, upon his marriage in 1760. Miquel, Sophie. When Jean and Jeanne Baret had their daughter they did the obvious and named her Jeanne. In 1785, Baret was granted a pension of 200 livres a year by the Ministry of Marine. Jeanne Baret was born July 27, 1740 in Autun, France to Jean and Jeanne Baret. It was necessary to return her to the ship to protect her from the excited Tahitians. [62] However, Ridley's biography has also been highly criticized by some reviewers for its reliance on improbable chains of speculation that are not corroborated by any other primary or secondary sources. Bulletin de la Société Historique et Archéologique du Périgord 144:771-82, "Voyaging Through Strange Seas: Four Women Travellers in the Pacific", "A new species of Solanum named for Jeanne Baret, an overlooked contributor to the history of botany", "A Female Explorer Discovered On The High Seas", NPR, December 26, 2010, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Jeanne_Baret&oldid=985624356, Articles with unsourced statements from November 2015, Wikipedia articles with Trove identifiers, Wikipedia articles with WORLDCATID identifiers, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, Jean Baret, Jeanne de Bonnefoi, Jeanne Barré, This page was last edited on 27 October 2020, at 00:09. Copyright 2020 © The Mariners' Museum & Park • Feedback • Terms and Privacy • Credits • Web Engineering by 10up, Original "EXPLORATION through the AGES" site, You can view each voyage individually or all at once by clicking on the, Click on either the map icons or on the location name in the expanded column to view more information about that place or event. One of her biographers, Glynis Ridley, suggests that her mother might have been of Huguenot extraction, a group that had a higher tradition of literacy than was otherwise typical of the peasant classes of the time.